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                  首頁 > 散文精選 > 優美散文 > 兩關今昔

                  兩關今昔

                  推薦人:無題 來源: 愛散文 時間: 2018-02-17 00:33 閱讀:

                    一、史說

                    這里提到的兩關,指的就是敦煌市西南的陽關和敦煌市西北的玉門關。

                    漢武帝元狩二年(前121年)驃騎將軍霍去病率輕騎繞道河西走廊之北,奔襲千里,迂回敵后,在今天的張掖與河西匈奴主力展開決戰,殺敵3萬余人,打敗休屠王,繳獲祭天金人,取得決定性勝利。史稱“斷匈奴右臂”。占領河西走廊后,西漢先后設置武威、酒泉、張掖、敦煌四郡,建成了陽關和玉門關,《漢書?西域傳序》稱為“列四郡,據兩關”。從此,兩關以東就成為西漢行政完全控制的地域,打通了絲綢之路。

                    后來,西漢幾次向西擴展,行政控制權達到中亞一帶。到了唐代,向西行政控制權到了西亞和貝加爾湖,也就是詩人李白的出生地碎葉城。元、清兩代大體如此,只有隋朝領域略小。在五胡十六國、五代十國期間地方勢力爭奪統治權,西部陷入混亂,沒有中央政權管轄到達的西部陷入小國割據之中,出現歷史號稱的西域三十六國。宋朝西部疆界急速縮小,西部邊界只達到寧夏興慶(銀川)到金城(蘭州)一線。明代又達到了伊吾(哈密)。

                    漢唐兩代絲綢之路已經通達現在的土耳其和埃及區域或者更遠的地方。那時商隊從長安出發,從兩關向西,走陽關的道路,出關就走上了沙漠,這是現在通往南疆的方向,通常叫做絲綢之路南路。到達若羌(鄯善)再向西到于闐,接著翻越蔥嶺(今帕米爾高原和喀喇昆侖山)就到了安息國(今伊朗高原和兩河流域)。

                    去安息也可以從玉門關出發,經過天山北麓,出伊犁的絲綢之路北道到達終點,史稱絲綢之路北路。從安息可以再向南或向西去更遠的伊朗、伊拉克等地和歐洲里海、黑海,那時最遠的古國波斯、羅馬也是通商最多的地方。如果翻越蔥嶺向南向東,就從克什米爾進入巴基斯坦和印度,也被稱作取經之路。所以,古代的絲綢之路確實是一條和各國通商、文化交流和溝通友好的路。

                    二、憑吊

                    我數十次到敦煌,大都要去玉門關和陽關。但更多的是,不一定每次都到玉門關,可是陽關是非去不可,哪怕時間少,哪怕就在陽關烽火臺前站上一會,也會有頗多感觸和短暫的沉思。

                    我每次站在陽關的標記烽燧前,就會默默讀著唐代大詩人王維的這首詩:”渭城朝雨浥輕塵,客舍青青柳色新。勸君更盡一杯酒,西出陽關無故人。”做為在1956年從十八歲就來到大漠戈壁深處奮斗了四十年的我,品味這首千古絕句,尤其是最后一句,更加如臨其境,更是百感交集。

                    看著殘缺的烽燧,高高地坐在那個孤零零的黃沙和黃土混合而成的土崗子上,人們都笑呵呵地和烽火臺合影,我卻有那么一股悲壯的心緒涌上來。這個絲綢之路上的主要軍事重地和驛站,通西域和連歐亞的重要門戶,原來是在一片綠洲上設立的關口,而且還立縣建制,現在卻是一片滄桑,戈壁灘上沒有了陽關關城,只有一個烽燧孤零零地矗立在那了。

                    關城的失蹤有很多說法,最不靠譜的是風吹雨打年代久遠。還有一種說法是發大水沖沒了。當然,在降雨量奇少的敦煌,在一望無際的大戈壁上,怎么能有大水呢?不過上世紀末,確實有一次黨河水因下暴雨發生洪水沖毀了整個敦煌縣,也算估計得不錯,現在的敦煌市就是在那個基礎上重建的。

                    我對西北的農業生產也有一定的關注,因此,西北有一種挖黃土造田的習慣。我在嘉峪關戈壁灘上工作時,那時,每年開春都會看到附近的農民駕著大轱轆車去挖長城,西北的長城是黃土版筑而成的,不像內地是磚砌的,上世紀五六十年代還沒有保護文物的概念,只有大躍進大生產的思路,何況過去的幾百上千年的農耕需要,所以,一點痕跡都沒有的古關城,只有一片古董灘,大概陽關就是這樣多種因素疊加在一起而失蹤的。

                    現在的陽關關城是偽建筑,和嘉峪關的所謂懸臂長城、關城第三座城樓一樣,都被導游們介紹說是古建筑,實際是這些年的仿造,那可都是我親眼看著建起來的。

                    “西出陽關”。這個在敦煌市西南的的陽關,是河西走廊的終點,它與北面的玉門關相呼應,從漢代到元初,一直是幾個朝代出西域的通道。唐代西域商賈往來頻繁,從很多塞上詩篇中可以看到,多少商賈、僧侶、使臣、游客、軍旅和朝貢者都是從這兩關進出的。《敦煌縣志》就記有“通九譯”的話,可以看出當時的敦煌是多么繁華。九譯,就是多達九種語言的翻譯,可能是個虛數,但是彰顯了古老的敦煌貿易功勛。現在常在我們餐桌和茶幾上的瓜果蔬菜,比如胡蘿卜、洋蔥、西葫蘆、葡萄、石榴、核桃等等以及多種香料,十數個品種就是從這條絲綢之路上傳入的。因此有“絲綢西送、香料東來”的說法。

                    三、天馬

                    陽關西南有一片水域,古代叫壽昌海,也叫渥洼池。其實從漢代地圖上可以看到,河西走廊是有很多水系的,有很多珍珠一樣的湖泊把這些水系連接在一起。幾千年的水土流失,人們不斷伐木作為軍隊和商賈取暖做飯之用,使得西部出現大量的荒地、沙漠、戈壁。當然,大量的地理歷史是主要成因,因為這一帶在遠古時期是沉寂的大海,后來地球的造山造陸運動,西部凸起,大海消去,才出現了大量戈壁。沙漠是西部戈壁北風刮起的產物,覆蓋了良田。在上世紀“深挖洞、廣積糧、不稱霸”的號召下,我參加的挖防空洞時發現,原來戈壁有數十丈深,可以佐證當時就是大海。

                    渥洼池在漢代傳說是天馬的來往歇息地方。史料記載,漢武帝時有一名叫暴利長的囚徒屯田敦煌時,發現渥洼池每天早晨都有一匹體態魁偉,骨胳非凡的馬來飲水,于是,暴利長就用黃色的草做了一個草人拿著一個套馬桿擺在湖邊。那馬開始有點警覺,時間久了,就不害怕了,照常飲水吃草。暴利長此時就自己站在湖邊,當那馬來時,暴利長用套馬桿套住了這匹野馬。他當做天馬獻給了漢武帝,漢武帝見到馬,以為是他最尊崇的太乙神賜給他的寶馬,起名為太乙天馬,并作《天馬歌》。從此,渥洼池同“天馬”一舉馳名。

                    天馬故事在那時已經廣為流傳。河西走廊的武威就出土了一只銅馬,作飛天狀,腳下踏著一只張開翅膀的燕子。出土時,正值文革結束,郭沫若為了避免政治問題,把一些專家學者為銅馬取名天馬、馬踏飛燕、天馬行空等等舍棄不用,因為當時那位折戟黃沙的副統帥家里有橫幅書寫著“天馬行空,獨往獨來”,于是,郭老給定下名字叫做“銅奔馬”,作為國家旅游標志一直沿用到今天。

                    可以說,兩關的很多故事,還有待挖掘,作為河西走廊、絲綢之路上的我,雖然年事已高,但還是想再走絲綢之路,深入采訪,寫出更多的輝煌。

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